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T Lymphocyte Subgroup: Detection and Clinical Significance

2012-09-11 11:42

T Lymphocyte subgroup can be used to determine cellular immune function by measuring surface marker of T cells: count of T cells, classification and activation degree. Flow cytometry is one of the quickest, most accurate as well as reliable check methods for determining CD antigen.

Changes in the total number of T cells

CD3 molecule is the major index of total T cells. The increase of CD 3 and T cells can be seen in diseases such as hyperthyroidism, lymphocytic thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis or organ transplant rejection. The reduction occurs in patients with immunodeficiency disease, malignant tumor, virus infection and those who receive immunosuppressant.

The significance

1. Immunodeficiency disease

One important cause accounting for the disease is the hypofunction and count of CD8+ cells. A typical example is SLE. Patients with such disease often live with decreased percentage of CD8+cells in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and accompanied with increased CD4+ percentage as well as elevated ratio of CD4+/CD8+.

2. Virus infection

Reduced ratio of CD4+/CD8+ is an important sign of virus infection. In patients with chicken pox, scarlatina, measles, count of CD4+ cells decreases while count of CD8+ cells increases. Other cases with similar results are recurrent infectious mononucleosis and snail fever etc.

3. Tumor

Reduction of CD3+, CD4+cell count, increase of CD8+ cell count and sharply drop in ratio of CD4+/CD8+ can be seen when tumors develop, for example, liver cancer, gastrointestinal cancer or breast cancer. Those with tumors live with a weakened immune system. By detecting abnormal changes of T Lymphocyte Subgroup, one is able to realize the immune status, instruct clinical medications and regulate one’s immune function.

4. Hematopoiesis

The abnormality of T lymphocyte subgroup is usually related with dysfunctional proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cell in bone marrow.

5. Kidney disease

Humoral immunity of renal immune response is commonly seen. However, the connection between kidney disease and T lymphocyte subgroup becomes a concern with further research of T lymphocyte subgroup.

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