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Main > Kidney Disease > Renal Failure > Renal Failure Basics >
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Causes of Acute Renal Failure

2012-10-23 09:06

Acute Renal Failure, also known as acute kidney injury, refers to the rapid decline of kidney function within several hours, days or weeks. GFR (glomerular filtration rate) declines to less than 50% of all, meanwhile, creatinine and serum urea nitrogen increases rapidly. Electrolyte disorders, acid-base imbalance or related symptoms of ESRD may develop. Several factors affecting ARF include the primary disease, severity of kidney impairment, speed of progression, and whether complications exist or not.

Causes of Acute Renal Failure

Due to the direct influence on kidneys, causes of Acute Renal Failure can be divided into three major categories: prerenal, renal and postrenal.


ECF volume depletion, for instance, excessive diuresis, hemorrhage, things of that sort

Low cardiac output becomes another reason accounting for the occurrence of AKF.

In addition to these, low systemic vascular resistance, decreased efferent arteriolar tone are also important causes of prerenal ARF.


Acute tubular injury caused by ischemia, surgery, hemorrhage, arterial or venous obstruction becomes a cause of Acute Kidney Failure.

Acute glomerulnephritis acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, acute vascular nephropathy and infiltrative diseases are the rests causes for Acute Renal Failure.


Tubular precipitation, ureteral obstruction and bladder obstruction account for postrenal Acute Kidney Injury.

Uric acid, sulfonamides and myeloma protein resulting in tubular precipitation that leads to ARF. Calculi, clots, fungus ball, edema, cancer, congenital defects, cancer, retroperitoneal fibrosis, high impact injury, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, urethral valves and so on are the reasons why one would suffer from Acute Renal Failure.

In all cases of Acute Kidney Injury, creatinine and urea and some other toxins build up in the blood due to failed kidneys. One of the most serious problems is called hyperkalemia and edema because hyperkalemia may lead to muscle weakness, lags in response, slow heart rate, arrhythmia or even death. For edema, also known as fluid overload, this often triggers pulmonary edema. In addition to these, many other problems or symptoms may attack.

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Tag: Renal Failure Renal Failure Basics

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